The natural lighting design of the passenger station has an important impact on the energy consumption of the passenger station. On the one hand, the quantity and quality of lighting will directly affect the use of artificial lighting, thus affecting the lighting energy consumption; on the other hand, the light-transmitting envelope structure is often energy-saving for buildings. In the weak link, its insulation and heat insulation performance is poor, which causes an increase in indoor air conditioning and heating load. Insufficient lighting will result in poor indoor light environment, affecting people's physical and mental health, and increase lighting energy consumption; excessive lighting will cause indoor overheating, causing increased air conditioning load, causing glare, resulting in poor indoor light environment and thermal environment. . Therefore, the lighting design of the passenger station not only needs to consider the effect of the light environment and the lighting demand, but also consider the impact on the building energy consumption, and it is necessary to seek a reasonable balance between light and heat.
In China's current standards, there is no clear regulation on the lighting coefficient and lighting power density of passenger stations. Some researchers have put forward guiding suggestions for energy-saving design of lighting lighting according to the research situation and design experience, and based on the research results and computer simulation technology. The lighting of the passenger station was simulated.
However, there are few studies on the comprehensive consideration of light and heat in the existing research. There is still no quantitative analysis and summary on the impact of daylighting on building energy consumption. The sample of the survey is limited to a few passenger stations in a climate zone, representative and Insufficient universality.
The purpose of this paper is to determine the standard of lighting design based on the requirements of building energy conservation and indoor light environment. Based on the comprehensive analysis of light and heat, the corresponding design points are given, which is the follow-up The design of the passenger station serves as a reference and guidance.
2 Current situation research
For the purposes of the above research, the research team selected 16 typical passenger stations in different climate regions in China from July to August 2010. The research work includes two parts: investigation and on-site testing. The researchers communicate with the designers and the station staff to understand the design and operation of the passenger station, obtain the map information and basic information of the passenger station, and understand the indoor and outdoor light of the passenger station according to the site investigation. Environmental status; Through field testing, the researchers obtained data such as indoor illumination, envelope structure and photothermal parameters, and lighting energy consumption.
2. 1 Lighting patterns and basic practices
From the field investigation, the design of the passenger station pays more attention to natural lighting, and the design of the envelope structure has its own characteristics. The form of lighting and the structure of the light-transmitting envelope structure are various, some adopt side lighting, and some adopt top lighting. The design of the lighting also takes into account the need for shading (Figures 1â€“4).
The lighting design of each waiting room waiting room is shown in Table 1:
2. 2 Field test results
The measured results of the lighting of the main functional spaces of each passenger station are shown in Table 2.
Figure 5 shows the measured results of the distribution of the daylighting coefficients of two passenger stations with different lighting patterns.
From the measured results, the lighting conditions of the waiting room and the inbound hall of most passenger stations are better, and the average lighting coefficient is 2.82% and 3.51%, respectively. It is generally unnecessary to turn on artificial lighting during the day; the lighting coefficient of the ticket office It is slightly lower, 1.37%, and needs to be partially turned on during the day to supplement the artificial lighting; the platform of the passenger station is used as a semi-outdoor area, and the lighting is sufficient, which can avoid the visual discomfort caused by the contrast between the passengers during the transfer.
In order to understand the impact of lighting on lighting energy consumption, we conducted a test on the lighting power consumption of each passenger station, as shown in Figure 6.
The electricity consumption per unit area of â€‹â€‹the surveyed passenger station is about 8. 9kWh /m2 ~ 68. 2kWh / m2, the difference is large; the investigation found that the illumination power density value is between 9 ~ 12 W / m2, the difference is small. Therefore, the difference in lighting energy consumption mainly comes from the time and operation mode of turning on the lights. Comparing the measured results of lighting, it can be seen that the passenger station with better lighting has a shorter time to turn on the lighting, and its lighting energy per unit area is relatively lower.
From Fig. 6, the lighting opening time of each station and the utilization of natural lighting can also be roughly judged. Assume that the lighting power density is 12 W/m2, and the lighting energy consumption is 26. 3 kWh / m2 when the running time is 6h, and the lighting energy consumption is 52.6 kWh / m2 when the daily running time is 12h, where J, L The energy consumption of the three passenger stations exceeds this value, which means that the lighting opening time is longer than 12h/day.
2. 3 lighting design examples
During the on-site investigation, the research team found some good design examples, which not only considered the energy-saving factors, but also achieved better light environment effects. The following is an example analysis of some guest stations.
(1) A station
The station has a smaller depth and uses double-sided lighting (Figure 7).
After field measurement, the natural lighting effect of the waiting room is good, and there is no need to turn on the lights during the day, and the energy saving effect is remarkable. At the same time, the subjective feeling is better because the lighting level is relatively high and relatively uniform.
( 2) C station
The C station uses the skylights in the atrium to solve the lighting in the hall, which is better, as shown in Figure 8.
(3) K station
The passenger station is an online station. In order to improve the lighting of the platform, a layer of ground is made of light-transmissive tempered glass, as shown in Figure 9 and Figure 10.
Under the condition of fine weather, the ground illumination of the platform area under the skylight can reach 248 lx, which can meet the lighting requirements without turning on artificial lighting. From the subjective feeling of the scene, due to the enhancement of natural lighting, the contrast between light and dark is reduced, and better visual comfort can be ensured without turning on the light.